The textile industry has a key role in the Mauritian economy both as a driver for employment creation and as a pillar of the economy. With the increasing demands for high quality textile products and an ever more open global market, textile production has risen swiftly in recent years, accompanied by a pressing need to improve competitiveness. An increasing component of this competitiveness matrix is the sustainability of the materials and processes involved. By its very nature, the textile industry can lead to serious environmental degradation, and for a Small Island Developing State (SIDS) like Mauritius with a fragile ecosystem, developing a sustainability framework for the textile industry is key to ensuring a sound economic growth of this sector and adjoining ones. This research project presents findings obtained from a survey of major textile companies in Mauritius to understand the current situation in terms of awareness and good practices already in place. In the light of the results, a sustainability index framework has been developed based 174 environmental, 15 economic and 30 social indicators deemed of relevance for the Mauritian context. The framework has been applied on selected textile companies and the results show promise to use the indicators to benchmark practices of companies in this sector and provides a sound starting point to refine and adjust the framework parameters as priorities change over time.