Over the past 25-30 years, the textile industry has evolved into a key component of the Mauritian economy. It is the largest of all the manufacturing industries both in terms of workforce and domestic export value.This project aimed at identifying and quantifying the activities of dyehouses in Mauritius. Cotton fabric dyeing is, by far, the main wet processing activity. Reactive dyes and salts are the main chemicals in use. A survey of all dyehouses in Maui ti us was undertaken to obtain precise data of their operations. The characteristics of a number of the important parameters of effluent were determined. It was found that BOD, COD and heavy metals' content were in general well above the consent limits. A detailed analysis of the treatment practices was also carried out. It has been observed that effluent treatment, in general, though very costly, was not effective in bringing down the level of BOD, COD, heavy metals and other parameters below the consert limits . Finally, taking into consideration, the activities of dyehouses, the characteristics of effluent and treatment practices, a number of measures have been proposed. These measures aim at reducing the impact of dyehouses activities on the environment.