Low molecular proanthocyanidin dietary biofactor Oligonol: Its modulation of oxidative stress, bioefficacy, neuroprotection, food application and chemoprevention potentials
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29 August 2022
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Interdisciplinary research endeavors are directed at understanding the molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative and chronic diseases that affect human lifestyle. Hence the potential for developing medicinal herb-derived and food plant-derived prophylactic agents directed at neurological, metabolic, cardiovascular and psychiatric disorders abounds. Oligonol is a novel technology product emanating from the oligomerization of polyphenols, typically proanthocyanidin from a variety of fruits (grapes, apples, persimmons etc.) that has optimized bioavailability. It is an optimized phenolic product containing catechin-type monomers and oligomeric proanthocyanidins, the easily absorbed forms. Typically the constituents of Oligonol are 15–20% monomers, 8–12% dimers and 5–10% trimers. Supplementation of mice with Oligonol prior to the administration of ferric-nitrilotriacetic complex (a Fenton chemistry model) significantly reduced the extent of lipid peroxidation in the kidney, brain and liver. Oligonol triggers apoptosis in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells through modulation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins and the MEK/ERK signaling pathway, an observation suggesting its important chemopreventive effects. The senescence-accelerated strain of mice (SAM) are models of senescence acceleration and geriatric disorders which exhibit learning and memory deficits and enhanced production or defective control of oxidative stress leading to neuronal damage. Oligonol has been suggested to modulate behavioral deficits, decrease the extent of inflamma-tion scores in the SAMP8 mice as well as prolonging their life-span. Oligonol modulates the Aβ induced oxidative insult and dysfunction in mitochondrial membrane integrity in PC12 cells indicating potential neuroprotection functions. Safety studies indicate no adverse effects in mice with an LD50 of 5 g/kg which equates to a dose of approximately 300 g for an average human with a 60 kg body weight. The application of Oligonol in pharmaceutical preparations, cosmetics, dairy, processed meat and food products, supplements and in functional beverages can be envisaged.